Skip to main content

Table 3 Organizational life cycle stages

From: A change in the importance of mortality factors throughout the life cycle stages of small businesses

  Stages
Author Genesis (0) Existence (1) Survival (2) Formalization (3) Readaptation (4) Stability (5) Decline (6)
Adizes (1990, 1997, 1998) Courtship Infancy Go go Adolescence Prime Stable Aristocracy Early bureaucracy Bureaucracy
Churchill and Lewis (1983) _ Existence Survival Success Take-off Resource Maturity _ _
Galbraith (1982) Initial test and prototype Model Shop Start-up Natural Growth Strategic maneuver _ _
Greiner (1972, 1998) _ Creativity Direction Delegation Coordination Collaboration _
Helfat and Peteraf (2003) Foundation Development Maturity Foundation Development Maturity Foundation Development Maturity Foundation Development Maturity _
Miller and Friesen (1984) _ Birth Growth
Maturity
Renovation _ Decline
O’ Neill et al. (1987) _ Entrepreneur Post- entrepreneur Post-entrepreneur Corporative _
Quinn and Cameron (1983) _ Entrepreneur Collectivity Formalization and control Development of structure _ _
Scott and Bruce (1987) _ Start-up Survival Growth
Expansion
Maturity _ _
Steinmetz (1969) _ Direct supervision Supervision of supervisors Indirect control Divisional organization _ _