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Table 4 Characteristics of the OLC’s initial stages in the owner-manager category

From: A change in the importance of mortality factors throughout the life cycle stages of small businesses

Stage Owner-manager category
Genesis ▪ Many ideas and questions from the owner (9)
▪ Does a bit of everything (3)
▪ Social (social links), human (abilities) and knowledge capital (11)
▪ Organizes and directs (attack commander) (3)
Existence ▪ Dependency from the founder: the owner is the business (main supplier of energy, direction and capital) (4; 6; 7; 9)
▪ Unlimited dedication: many hours of work dedicated by the owner (2; 9)
▪ Individualist and entrepreneur style (2; 5; 7; 8)
▪ Social, human and knowledge capital (11)
▪ Abilities to buy (1) and to make and sell (2; 4)
▪ Expectation of low salary and promise of property (2)
▪ The business is led by the founder’s values: balance between personal and business’ aims (4; 8)
▪ Emphasis on the individual charisma (1)
▪ The owner is more of a player and less of a trainer (3)
Survival ▪ Has a sense of mission (5)
▪ The owner continues to be a synonym of the business (4; 6)
▪ Entrepreneur and managerial style (1; 4; 8)
▪ Social, human and knowledge capital (11)
▪ The owner-manager plays the roles of a player and a trainer (3)
▪ Expectation of salary increase (2)
▪ Know-how in finances and efficiency (performance standards) (1; 2)
▪ More adept to financial management (1)
▪ Develops an innovation (method, product) (1)