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Table 1 Descriptive Statistics

From: Beyond the EJ model: entrepreneurial orientation and industry choice of Ghanaian entrepreneurs

Variable Mean Alpha Items
Risk-Taking 3.93 0.833 I consider myself daring
[1 = Strongly disagree; 5 = Strongly Agree] I take bold decisions necessary to achieve the firm’s objectives
I understand risk-taking and how it works
The term “risk taker” is considered a positive attribute for people in our business
People in our business are encouraged to explore and develop new ideas
Innovativeness 3.92 0.679 I am motivated to be creative in methods of operation
[1 = Strongly disagree; 5 = Strongly Agree]
I have a strong emphasis on product/service gaps
Proactiveness 4.09 0.827 I take the lead and competitors follow
[1 = Strongly disagree; 5 = Strongly Agree] I am not afraid to fail
I adopt a very competitive posture
Gender Male 62.3%
Female 37.7%
Age ≤ 25 years 11.3%
26-45 years 68.0%
≥ 46 years 20.7%
Education ≤ Basic School 51.7%
Secondary 44.0%
≥ University 4.3%
Industry Services 63.0%
Production 37.0%