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Table 1 Variables’ Description

From: Determinants of new products innovation in Ghanaian SMEs sector

Variable name Description
Dependent Variable
Sales value Sales value of innovated product ($)     
Inputs for innovation
Independent Variables
Total Expenditure on innovation Total innovation expenditure in 2016 ($)     
In-house expenditure In-house R & D expenditure 2016 ($)     
External expenditure External R & D expenditure 2016 ($)     
New machines, equipments and software Expenditure on equipments, software, and machines 2016 ($)   
Technologies Expenditure on external technologies 2016 ($)    
Government subsidies 1 if SME uses government subsidies to fund its innovation, 0 for otherwise  
Government tax credit 1 if SME uses tax credit to fund its innovation, 0 for otherwise   
Foreign capita 1 if SME uses foreign capital from investors to fund its innovation, 0 for otherwise
VC 1 if SME uses VC to fund its innovation, 0 for otherwise   
Internal funds 1 if SME funds its innovation with internal funds, 0 for otherwise   
Bank loans 1 if SME funds its innovation with bank loans, 0 for otherwise   
Attributes of the SME
Patent 1 if SME has patent, 0 for otherwise     
Labour force Number of workers       
Education Number of workers with degrees and above    
Protection 1 if SME has an inner protection of its technology, 0 for otherwise   
Brand 1 if SME has its own brand, 0 for otherwise    
Subsidiary 1 if SME has a subsidiary overseas, 0 for otherwise