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Table 2 Influential driving forces for educational technologies

From: Structural analysis of Iranian educational technologies

Row Driving force Remarks about driving force
1 Growing focus on measuring learning -Education does not indicate the skills of people and grades provide very ambiguous information about the tacit knowledge of people. Objective knowledge, skills and professional experiences need a method for validation (Adams Becker et al. 2017). -measurement or learning analysis: measuring, collecting, analyzing and reporting data are related to the learner and their problems which are done to understand and optimize the environment and learning process. This is the analysis of frequency data about the students for evaluating the academic advancement, optimizing the future performance and highlighting the strengths (Harmelen and Workman 2012).
2 Redesigning educational environment & BYOT -Increasing the facilities of schools for using the Internet, tablet, E-Book reader and laptop which provides independent learning for learners. -BYOT which is an abbreviated form for bringing your own technology means that the students should have different devices with themselves which have educational consequences for them (previously, schools tried to provide these devices for students) (Digital technology trends 2016). -Educational tools distinguish widely from traditional tolls and this causes redesign of educational environments (Adams Becker et al. 2017) -Libraries convert to the open learning environment with widespread capabilities for rest, creativity and computers (Moesha 2016).
3 Massive open online courses - An effective trend which occur currently by using computer software and the Internet is flexibility in the education. Students are able to use the best training content provided by the best coaches, at any time and in any place they want. (Collis and Moonen 2002). -Massive open online courses (MOOC) were used for the first time titled as relationship and relational knowledge in 208 in which 2500 people participated. In 2011, Sebastian Throne has declared access to the course “artificial intelligence introduction” in the Stanford university and about 160,000 people participated from 190 countries in this course. The major goal of this course is providing an opportunity for public education and free access to the education for all applicants (Waldrop, 2013)
4 Social networks -Development of social networks is one of the major trends in the information technology field. Social networks display an effective and complex information society. With an accurate look, the society is a combination of various networks like inter-organizational networks, intra-organizational networks, personal networks, computer networks and transnational networks from which information flows. Social networks are not the only new technology tools which provide considerable facilities for the Internet users. Social networks can be considered as a new mean which have changed the social, cultural, economic and political structures. The increasing expansion of social networks has caused this issue to become one of the most important national security problems of countries (IT & management issues, 2011). -Statistics show that currently 90% of students in America use social networks and these networks are used as a communication tool between students, professors and principals (Davis 2001).
5 Customization -Information and communication technology can provide personal and smarter equipment, tools and services and gives this possibility to users to have more control on their data. Therefore, users can meet their needs directly. In fact, by development and advancements in the information and communication technology and related tools with customization of these systems, they can use it in wide range. For example, some applications and information systems provided the possibility for definition and changing the information entities and workflow for final users without intervention of software engineers.
6 Interactive learning -Changing the role of teacher to facilitator of learning is one of the serious trends in the educational space. Schools at the era of mobile phones are moving from memorization to wisdom based on skills. This is not about what you know, this is about how do you know it and the planning for what is necessary to know. By providing deeper questions for students and rapid access to data, teachers can focus their efforts on the persuading children to become curious and innovator (Moesha 2016). -Interactive learning along with education with conceptual questions have more effective results on students’ learning (Redish 2003).
7 Changing the direction of education from classic to digital -Out mathematics curriculum is based on arithmetic and algebra. And what we learn after it, is in the same direction i.e. differential and integration. We placed our course pyramid on the differential and integration, while we should place it on the statistics. Statistics is predicting the trends and future. The world has changed from analog world to digital world and now is the time to change mathematics from analog to digital, continuous and classic mathematics to discrete and modern mathematics, uncertainty mathematics, randomness mathematics and this is probabilities and statistics. In the complex world instead of learning calculus techniques, it is more important that our students know what is meant by standard deviation from mean (Benjamin 2009).
8 Simulator technologies -Gamification, augmented reality, three-dimensional printers, flight simulators, surgery simulators and etc. with augmented reality facilitate education for learners.