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Table 4 Results of paired T-test comparing the mean of components of entrepreneurship development index in quick-impact enterprises in the first year of working and the current year

From: Entrepreneurship in small agricultural quick-impact enterprises in Iran: development of an index, effective factors and obstacles

Variable First year Current year t sig
mean SD mean SD
Innovation in product or service 6.53 2.54 8.68 2.97 −8.21 0.0001
Environment protection 9.04 3.38 10.68 2.92 −6.88 0.0001
Customer satisfaction 9.19 3.25 9.94 3.58 −3.72 0.002
Staff satisfaction 6.97 3.31 8.13 3.43 −6.50 0.0001
Adaptation ability 7.43 2.51 8.93 3.26 −6.38 0.0001
Regional welfare and development 9.13 2.45 9.42 2.94 −1.14 0.2
Employment 7.99 3.07 8.68 3.71 −2.34 0.02
Profitability 7.64 2.28 9.81 2.28 −7.32 0.001
Competitiveness 9.12 2.39 10.57 4.53 −4.87 0.0001
Business sustainability 8.15 4.24 9.84 3.81 −4.51 0.0001
Commercialization of ideas 7.42 2.56 8.61 3.92 −6.75 0.01
Sum of components 7.04 1.56 8.89 2.10 −12.19 0.001
  1. Range of each of components: 3–20