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Table 3 Summary of Drug Advance’s EO

From: Innovativeness, risk-taking, and proactiveness in startups: a case study and conceptual development

Sub-dimension attribute Early EO state Later EO state
Innovativeness in processes Lack of creativity and experimentation + Some creativity and openness to change
Innovativeness in outcome ++ Several novel and unique product features Mainly tried-and-true product features
Risk-taking in processes Calculative and cautious “wait-and-see” approach to risk-taking Calculative and cautious “wait-and-see” approach to risk-taking
Risk-taking in outcome ++ A product with high-risk and many risky factors A product with less risk and less risk factors
Proactiveness in process + First mover with opportunistic leadership Reactive market follower
Proactiveness in outcome ++ First to introduce several product features Competing with similar product features