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Table 1 Comparison of productivism, post-productivism, and multi-functional agriculture characteristics

From: Multifunctional agriculture: an approach for entrepreneurship development of agricultural sector

  Productivism Post-productivism Multifunctionality
Philosophy Positivism, absolute facts and reality Pluralism Pluralism, multiple realities and relativism
Modernization: linear progress and economic
Post-modern: multiple progress and sustainability Post-modern: multiple progress and sustainability through social innovation
Agriculturist: central hegemonic position of agriculture in society Ecologist: loss of central position of agriculture in society Agriculturist and ecologist: an agricultural systematic and holistic point of view
Traditional goods, general business Ecological services Innovative entrepreneurship and
start-up of new ventures in agricultural businesses
Strategies and purpose Emphasis on quantity Emphasis on quality The emphasis on quality and quantity
Science driven Necessity driven Opportunity driven
Achieving self-sufficiency in agricultural products Less emphasis on ensuring self-sufficiency in agricultural products Close relationship of food security and self-sufficiency
Increasing farms production, capitalization of agriculture, Intensification and concentration of cultivation, regional specialization of production using external inputs: resource base agriculture Paying attention to local and suburban areas, intensification and dispersion of cultivation, diversification, pluriactivity, and diversification of production patterns Paying attention to increasing production, productivity, and sustainability. Intensification as well as on-farm diversification activity. More coordination with environmental protection (knowledge base agriculture)
Economic rationality Environmental rationality Environmental and economic rationality
An instrumental view of nature: extreme expectancy from the earth Nature is inherently worthwhile: The amount of land expected is equal to the amount of land capability The environment is inherently worthwhile: The amount of resources expected is equal to the amount of environmental capability
Technological relationship with nature The wisely relationship of technology with nature The wisely interaction of technology with environment
Researchers and agricultural extension Governmentalism: government as central actor is steering Negotiation and consensus among various actors, the lack of state-sector role Network of interdependent actors: all actors are steering (governmental, non-governmental and private institutions)
Centralized: classical, technocratic and rational decision-making Decentralized: democratic decision-making through negotiation Decentralized: democratic decision-making through negotiation
Strong financial and political state support Reduced financial state support Financial state support, especially in the case of non-commodity goods
Classical extension model Participatory extension Pluralistic agricultural extension systems
Combine two approaches: IEA and SNA
The function of extension agent is diffusion of new patterns of production, technologies and activities Extension agent as facilitators of individual and collective learning processes
Services to marginal groups
Functional diversity: participatory development of technology, capacity building, facilitating, and mentoring, providing consultancy services
Diffusion of entrepreneurship and development of new businesses
Transfer of technology through rich contact farmers Transfer of technology through all farmers and all rural people Transfer of technology through all farmers and all rural people and other stakeholders
Researcher as an owner of research process Researcher as a participants in farmers research or stimulator of farmers Researcher as a proficient in innovation process,
Researcher as “broker” or “boundary spanner”
View on farm and farmers The mechanical view of farm: the farm is agro-economic phenomenon The farm is agro-ecology phenomenon The farm is agro-ecology-economic phenomenon which is formed in a social context.
One-sided concept of cultivation Multi-dimensional concept of cultivation Farms as potential multifunctional rural companies
Passive learner: one-way relationship
Education and internship patterns
Active learner: collective methods, participatory approaches
Pluriactive farmers
Active learner: collective methods, participatory approaches and multi-actors learning
Farmers as farmers Farmers as environmental and countryside managers Farmers as entrepreneurs: acting as environmental and countryside managers, and as rural entrepreneurs